EU Citizenship FAQs

If your parents or grandparents are from Europe, you probably already know that EU citizenship makes it possible for you to reside, study, own property and gain employment in the European Union countries. To help you navigate the bureaucratic maze that acquiring citizenship is, we’ve put together answers to commonly asked questions about EU citizenship and EU passports. You can also learn more about our frequently asked questions for Polish citizenship, German citizenship and Czech citizenship.

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states. It has 447 million residents (5.8% of the world’s population) and encompasses an area of 4,233,255.3 km2. The union and EU citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993.

Any person who holds citizenship of an EU country is automatically also an EU citizen. EU citizenship is additional to national citizenship and does not replace it. This means that while they are citizens of their home country, with the rights and responsibilities that citizenship involves, they are also citizens of the European Union. EU citizens have the right to live, work, study and retire in any of the EU member states and enjoy diplomatic and consular protection.

An EU passport is a passport issued by one of the 27 member states of the European Union. You need to be a citizen of one of the member states to qualify.

The two most common ways to acquire EU citizenship as a non-EU citizen are through citizenship by descent (through your ancestors) or naturalization (through residence). To find out if there’s an option for you, please contact our team.

EU citizens are citizens of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. Similar rights also apply to nationals of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, and to nationals of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland who are covered by Part Two of the Withdrawal Agreement (Brexit).

Dual citizenship, or having a second passport, has become very popular in recent years since it gives people security and flexibility. An EU Passport as a second passport gives you the highest level of safety as gives you freedom of movement with the 27 countries of the European Union.

Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Poland, Sweden, Slovakia.

If you’re a UK citizen, your eligibility to live, work or study in a European country now depends on the host country’s national immigration laws and visa requirements. For short-term stays in Europe, you do not require a visa. However for stays longer than 90 days in a 180-day period, you will require a visa to stay in Europe.

Citizenship Rights and Obligations

Legal Documents and Civil Records

The Apostille is usually a stamp (or a sticker) placed on original documents to confirm their authenticity. Countries that are signatories to the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 are required to present their official documents accompanied by Apostilles. Birth, death and marriage certificates, notarial deeds, court documents, sworn translations and other official documents need to be Apostilled before they can be submitted to other Hague Convention signatory countries. 

An overseas birth certificate, marriage certificate, divorce certificate or other legal document issued in one EU country will automatically be recognized  in another.  If you or your children were born outside of the EU, you will need to have it legalized through the civil registry authorities of the country you’re applying in.

It is a Latin term for law of ancestry or law of blood. This means one’s right to citizenship through ancestry, usually a parent or grandparent.

About Polaron

We have a 99% success rate, because we are very serious when evaluating your case and we only advise you to proceed with the application if we are certain of your eligibility. 

Polaron was established in 2000 and is headed by Eva Hussain who is herself Polish and of Jewish heritage. As a certified translator and interpreter, Eva saw a niche to fill by helping people get European citizenship. The company has since supported over 15,000 people to get EU citizenship. You can learn more about who we are here.

Our head office is located in Melbourne, Australia. We also have offices in Europe and the US. You can see our exact addresses here.

Yes, absolutely. Many of our clients live overseas or in remote areas.

Polaron has strict policies and procedure in place to guarantee that personal details, documents and information are treated in the strictest of confidence. We never share any information with anyone unless authorized by you. Read more about our privacy policy here.


If you have all the required documentation, the process of confirmation of citizenship is relatively simple and, based on our experience, can take approximately between 9-12 months. It can become complicated if the events that you need to demonstrate have happened a long time ago, if you do not have the required documents or if other events have occurred that make it difficult to prove the blood ties with your ancestors. Applications for some countries can take up to 48 months.

After your citizenship application is approved, the usual processing time for a standard passport is 1-3 months. In an emergency, a passport can be issued within 24 hours by the consulate.


Every application is different because it is based on specific circumstances. We are able to provide an exact price soon after you have a FREE discovery call with our team, as they will be able to give further details. Contact us to find out more.

With Polaron, you receive support from the start and throughout your journey to citizenship. We provide you with a dedicated case manager, clear guidance, translations, ancestral research (if required) and other support.

Yes, we do. Payment plans can be spread across several months.

Yes, we offer a competitive family discount. See under family members for more details.

Family Members

If your children are under the age of 18, they can be  included in your application, but will need to have their own case file. If they are 18 or older and qualify, they will need to apply separately. Your grandchildren can also apply with you.

Certainly! In fact, all living ancestors in the direct line between you and your Polish ancestor are eligible. The research only needs to be done once and everybody can benefit. Applying with siblings or cousins requires little additional research and is a great way to divide up costs. Another benefit of applying with other family members is that you only need one set of documents.

Yes, as long as they follow the same ancestral line. Many people share the cost of research, which only needs to be done once per family.

We request this information because certain professions, such as those in public service or with significant historical relevance, may impact your eligibility. For instance, roles in religious institutions or the railway industry could help you get EU citizenship. Please provide this information to the best of your ability.

Want to Know About a Specific Citizenship?

Still Can't Find What You're Looking For?

Search the entire website.

Scroll to Top