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Prof. Adamski knows all there is to know about Polish citizenship, passports and genealogy. He works around the clock to give you detailed and personalised answers to your questions. Want to know more about your family and their journey from Poland? Leave your questions down below and you might be surprised about what he can uncover!

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470 questions and answers

  1. Hello Professor,

    My grandfather was born in Kovel (then-Russia) in 1890. He immigrated to the US in 1910. However, his father, my great-grandfather, remained in Kovel until his death many years later. As that area was possibly under Polish control, would I be able to eligible for Polish citizenship by descent from my great-grandfather, who remained in Kovel and died there? I have no information on when he died.

    Thanks in advance.


    1. Hello Jay,

      Once your grandfather became an adult, he held citizenship in his own right so your great grandfather’s citizenship no longer had no bearing. If he immigrated before 1920, you can only apply for grant unless he returned to Poland or registered with the Polish consulate.

      It does sound like you would be eligible for the Grant of Polish citizenship. Please email our team at for more information.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  2. My grandfather was born in 1909 in Bratislava to parents who were naturalized US citizens from the Austro-Hungarian empire (Slovakia). In 1910, they returned to the US. Would I qualify for citizenship through ancestry in Czechia?

    1. Hello Maria,

      In short, you would unfortunately not be eligible for either Czech or Slovak citizenship.

      Slovakia does not allow to obtain citizenship on the basis of Slovak ancestors further back than parents. The Czech Republic does not allow citizens whose ancestors lived in the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia to obtain Czech citizenship.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  3. Dear Professor Adamski,

    Both of my paternal grandparents were born in what is now Poland, then Russian Empire, in the region of Łódź. They were brought to the UK as babies by their respective families ca. 1900. UK census and other documents confirm their birthplaces as Poland. On one side, I have my great grandfather’s certificate of naturalisation as a British subject in 1914. It gives his birthplace as Lutomiersk and names his parents (my great great grandparents). It also mentions that he is married and has children, so I assume that the naturalisation applied to the entire nuclear family. I also assume that – quite apart from the pre-1920 date of their departure – the naturalisation would preclude me from obtaining Polish citizenship through descent through that line. My grandfather later served in the British Army in WWI.

    On the other side, I can find very few documents. However, the 1911 census shows that both my great grandparents and their daughter were born in Poland. I can find no evidence that my great grandparents were ever naturalised (the 1911 census describes them as ‘resident’ though). On the Polaron website, it suggests that even if an ancestor left Poland before 1920, if they can be identified in the relevant vital records in (what is now) Poland then this might have some bearing upon their descendants being able to obtain citizenship. I therefore wondered if I have any chance of claiming citizenship by descent (assuming that the relevant Russian/Polish vital records exist and I can identify them), or whether the only option would be apply for citizenship by grant. If the latter is the only possibility, then I wonder to what extent you consider that to be a realistic option.

    Many thanks for any advice you give.

    1. Hello Caspar,

      Very interesting and detailed information – thank you for sharing.

      Do you know if your great grandparents ever returned to Poland? Is there any chance at all that they may have registered as Polish citizens via the consulate? Do you know if they ever travelled outside of the UK? If so, what passport did they hold?

      If they never naturalized, perhaps they were Polish passports? Can you please confirm the years your grandfather was conscripted and demobilised from the British army?

      If you’d like to speak to a Polaron citizenship specialist about your case in more detail, please email our team at

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  4. Hello,
    Can you please tell me if I qualify for Austrian citizenship based on the Law that grants it to Holocaust victims?
    If I qualify or not depends on interpretation.
    The Law concerns those persecuted by the Nazi regime who consequently left Austria.
    My case is a bit different.
    My grandfather was not from Austria but was taken there, to a forced labor camp (=persecution by Nazis), he was living in that labor camp (=residence in Austria) and he returned to native Yugoslavia after the war (=left Austria).
    I understand cases like these are currently examined by the competent authority MA35, but I do not have any news.
    Can you perhaps help me understand what my chances are?
    Thank you,

    1. Hi Marko,

      Thank you for your questions!

      This law only applies to victims of the Nazi persecution who were Austrian citizens at the time, which it doesn’t sound like your grandfather was. So you wouldn’t qualify under this law.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

    2. Dear Marko,

      Thank you for your query.

      It may be worth pursuing but if your grandfather never held Austrian citizenship, which sounds to be the case, there is no process in the Austrian law to return it to him as his descendent.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  5. Hello,
    My mother was born in Danzig in 1934 and emigrated in 1939. I have her birth records. The family spoke Polish and thought of themselves as Polish, but I don’t have any documents to prove that. Their family name, however, is German.

    1. Dear Jon,

      Thank you for contacting us.

      Gdansk (Danzig) was a free city prior to 1939 and had a special status. It was inhabited by Poles and Germans so you would need to contact the Polish government to check what citizenship she and her parents held prior to their departure. For more information please email our team at

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  6. My grandfather was Polish born in 1914 and joined the polish army he was captured and sent to Siberia after Russia invaded in ww2. He fought in Italy under General Władysław Anders before coming to Britain. I hold a British passport and I would like my polish citizenship

  7. My late father was born in Lviv in 1927 and came to the UK after the war. He considered himself Ukrainian but naturalised as a British citizen in the 1950’s.
    Could I apply for an EU passport based on his place of birth and would I be applying for Ukrainian or Polish citizenship? Thank you

    1. Dear Pam,

      Thank you for your question.

      You would need to check what citizenship he held before he left Poland, but I’d think that if his nationality was Ukrainian, he may have never held Polish citizenship. Ukraine is not part of the EU, but you may wish to pursue it.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

    2. Hello Pam,

      Thank you for your question. If your father’s nationality was Ukrainian, you unfortunately cannot pursue Polish citizenship, as there was legislation in place to prevent dual citizenship between the two nations. Polaron does not handle applications for Ukrainian citizenship, as it is not in the EU.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  8. Hi,

    I would like to know if I can obtain the polish citizenship if my great grandfather have documents that says that is Polish but he was born in 1898. He had a son in 1926 (two years after arriving to Argentina). Does it mean that the son is Polish?


  9. My paternal family is originally from Galicia, Austria (Austro-Hungarian Empire). My great-grandparents fled to the United States around 1910s. My great-great grandparents were executed by the Nazis. Based on all of the US records I have found (Census, Naturalization Papers, and Draft Card) my great grandparents have listed their origin as Austria. Galicia is now part of Ukraine. Based on the new Austrian Citizenship law, am I eligible to apply for Austrian citizenship as when they left it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and they considered them