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Prof. Adamski knows all there is to know about Polish citizenship, passports and genealogy. He works around the clock to give you detailed and personalised answers to your questions. Want to know more about your family and their journey from Poland? Leave your questions down below and you might be surprised about what he can uncover!

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253 questions and answers

  1. Hello Prof. Adamski,
    My grandfather Francois is born in Poland in 1901 from a father and a mother both polish.
    He lefts Poland in 1927 and he is engaged in french army. During World War II (1939–1945) The Free France send him to Lebanon-Middle East.
    My grandfather Francois get married with a foreigner and have many kids one of them is my father.
    I’m wondering if my father and i are eligible for Polish citizenship.
    Any help would be hugely appreciated!

  2. Hello,

    I have recently received my Polish citizenship for myself and my children. My question concerns my wife – her grandfather and grandmother were born in Ternopil, Ukraine which was part of Poland at what time. I believe they immigrated to Canada in the 1920’s where her father was born?

    With me now being having Polish citizenship and her grandparents being from this region does this make her eligible?

    Thank you


    1. Hello Jan,

      She might be eligible through ancestry as Ternopil (Tarnopol) was part of Poland in the interwar period. She wouldn’t be eligible as your spouse, though, as one doesn’t acquire citizenship through marriage in Poland. In other words, she’d have to pursue it under her own heritage. As your spouse, however, she’d be entitled to a spousal visa in the EU.

      If you would like more information about your wife’s eligibility for Polish citizenship, please email my team at

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  3. Hi Professor

    I’d be very grateful for your advice as to whether you think it is worth me pursuing Polish citizenship.

    My grandfather was born in Brześć, then Poland in August 1915. Following the German and Soviet invasions in September 1939 he escaped first to France, then the UK, where he joined the Free Polish Air Force and served as a radar mechanic with the rank of Plutonowy (senior corporal) under RAF command until the war ended. I hope that this does not count as his having served in a foreign army as they really did not have any other option if they wanted to fight on.

    He married my English grandmother in early 1942 and she gave birth to my mother later that year. My grandfather never returned to Poland as Brześć was ceded to the Soviet Union in 1945 and is now part of Belarus. I assume that my mother would qualify for Polish citizenship as she was born when Brześć was still in Poland, though she has never sought to formalise it.

    My grandfather is listed on Krzystek’s list ( ) and I would hope that I could use this as evidence to link with his marriage certificate and my mother’s birth and marriage certificates to map to me.

    Do you think I would have a valid case worth pursuing please?

    Thank you in advance for your advice.


    1. Hi James,

      What an incredibly interesting story! Yes, you most likely qualify.

      If you’d like, my colleagues can organise a full eligibility assessment for you and give you some advice about the next steps in your case. Please email us at to get started.

      Looking forward to hearing from you soon.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  4. Good day professor Adamski.
    I would like to see if it’s possible to obtain polish citizenship based on my maternal grandmother.
    I have ascertained that my grandmother and her family came from and were born in or around Deblin . My gran and her family then immigrated to South Africa in 1927 of which I have a shipping manifest to confirm. My mother is still alive . I would like to Perdue the opportunity of thus getting a polish passport for myself and my 2 children. I do not have records or passports only the fact that they stated on the shipping manifests that they originated from Poland. So I would like to enquire about Pershing this Avenue for obtaining a polish passport as well as the process required to follow this through. If the chances of success are good I would like to make use of your researchers to find relevant documents if possible.
    Kind regards
    Leonard scher

    1. Hello Leonard,

      Thank you for your question.

      Do you know when your grandparents married? The date of marriage is quite important in order for us to determine whether or not she has lost her Polish citizenship.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  5. Hello Professor,
    My 21 year-old son contacted the Polish Consulate in Sydney to enquire about renewing his Polish passport and was sent the paperwork for establishing Polish citizenship with requirements for biography etc. Both my children were issued Polish passports from the Sydney Polish Consulate when they were babies, in 1998 and 2001. Has their citizenship been invalidated because their passports expired? Their Polish father, born in Poland 1962, left in 1981, and resident once more in Poland, seems to think they have to go through the same procedures as people with a more distant and historical descent. Is this right? I would welcome your response, as I thought their Polish citizenship was 100% established.

    1. Hello Megan,

      Yes, indeed. New regulations in Poland require for people to confirm their Polish citizenship even if they held Polish passport before. In the past, Polish consulates were able to issue passports in their own discretion. This is no longer the case and applications for confirmation of Polish citizenship need to be processed in Poland before passports can be renewed. Once citizenship is confirmed, it’s for life. Feel free to contact one of my colleagues at

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  6. How do i go about checking to see if im Eligible for Italian Citizenship via descent? If you can please send me the information i need to supply.

  7. Hello, I was wondering whether I might be eligible for Austrian citizenship.

    My biological grandmother was born in Austria to Austrian parents. She later moved out of Austria and married my grandfather who had a different nationality.

    My grandmother and father are deceased. I do not have access to the documents such as her birth certificate, passport, etc. But given such information, is it possible or impossible since my father is deceased?


  8. Hi!
    I’m now becoming interested in whether I may hold a dual citizenship.

    So my mum and her family moved from Poland to Melbourne Australia in 1966 when she was 9. I was born in Australia 1997, and believe I may be a eligible for a citizenship but I am not sure.

    It looks like I would be a Polish citizen if my mother was a citizen at the time of my birth. Problem is, I am not entirely sure she was a citizen. It looks like migrants may have been forced to renounce their nationality to become Australian citizens at this time, but my mother has no knowledge of my grandparents doing this when they moved – and apparently this was not enforced.

    Is it likely both my mum and me have polish citizenships? I know that if my mum’s citizenship had been taken away because of my grandparents renouncing theirs, she is eligible to have it reinstated. But I doubt my grandparents had renounced their citizenships

    Any help would be hugely appreciated! 🙂

    1. Hello Connor,

      Thank you for your question,

      You’re most likely Polish citizen, even if your mother’s parents renounced it to the Australian government. As long as this wasn’t done directly in Poland, you’re safe. If your mother has not maintained a current Polish ID and has not been issued with her PESEL number, she will need to confirm her Polish citizenship as well.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  9. Hello,
    I was wondering if I might be eligible for Czech citizenship.
    My grandad was born in Vrbice, Czech Republic in 1933. When he was about 18, he moved to Slovakia and until the split of the former Czechoslovakia in 1993 he kept his Czech citizenship. After that he became Slovak. I was born in the former Czechoslovakia in 1980 and am now residing in Australia.
    Thank you very much for your reply.

  10. Hello Prof. Adamski,

    My great-grandmother was born in (modern-day) Poland in 1904. She immigrated to the United States in 1913 and gave birth to my grandmother in the US in 1922. My great-grandmother became a naturalized US citizen in 1938. Does the fact that she was not yet a naturalized US citizen in 1922 when my grandmother was born make it possible for me to receive Polish citizenship through descent? Thank you so much for your consideration and assistance!

    1. Hello Rose,

      Unfortunately, since laws in Poland meant loss of citizenship for women when they acquired another country’s citizenship, your great-grandmother and grand mother both lost their Polish citizenship. Therefore, you wouldn’t be able to apply for Polish citizenship through confirmation. However, you could pursue Polish citizenship through grant.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  11. Hello Professor Adamski,

    My great-grandfather was born in Starzawa, Poland (now Staryava, Ukraine) in 1898. He was an ethnic Ukrainian and a Polish citizen. He emigrated to the United States in 1929 and became a U.S. citizen in 1938. My grandmother was a ethnic Ukrainian/Polish citizen who became a Soviet citizen due to the war, and my mother was born a Soviet citizen. I was born in 1982 as a U.S. citizen; my great-grandfather died in 1985.

    I have the following documents:
    – great-grandfather’s passport from 1929 showing Polish citizenship and residency in Poland
    – great-grandfather’s 1938 application for U.S. naturalization showing current Polish citizenship

    I can also probably obtain his naturalization documentation in the United States in 1938 as well as the appropriate vital documentation showing my relationship to my great-grandfather (birth certificates of my mother and grandmother) .

    Do you think this would be sufficient for a successful Polish citizenship application?

    Thank you,

  12. My Great grandfather came from Germany to Argentina. My grandfather Moved from Argentina to Peru where my Father was born. My I apply for German Citizenship?

    1. Hello Carlos,

      Thank you for getting in touch.

      I would need a bit more information about your family, such as when your great-grandfather was born, when he left Germany and what year he naturalised.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  13. HI I was wondering whether or not I would be eligible for Polish citizenship. My grandparents (as well as several generations prior) were all born in Poland. My grandfather came to the US in 1922 when he was around 26 years old. He became a naturalized US citizen in 1929. In 1932 he returned to Poland where he married my Polish grandmother in Krakow. He returned to the US in 1932 and in 1933 my grandmother came to the US. My father was born in 1935 in the US (my grandfather having been naturalized in 1929 was a US citizen but my grandmother was not) My grandfather was killed in an accident in 1938. Then my Grandmother became a US citizen in 1946. Would IDen be eligible?

  14. My father was born in Danzig in 1939 and came to the US in September of same year. He is now deceased but lived in the states since then. If I were to apply for a passport as a citizen by descent, which county would I apply to since it is my understanding that Danzig was a free city in 1939? Thank you in advance.

    1. Hi Lauren,

      You might be eligible for Polish provided he considered himself Polish. You could also potentially qualify for German. It all depends on his ethnic background and naturalisation history in the US. Feel free to email my team at for more information and a free eligibility assessment.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  15. Hi,

    My father in law was born in Poland in 1945 and the immigrated to Australia in 1952 approx. He has since misplaced his birth certificate and I was wondering how would I go about getting a copy of his birth certificate as we are located in Australia?

    Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.

    Kind Regards,

    1. Hello Samantha,

      You can apply directly to the Civil Registry Office at his place of birth. There is no online application process, unfortunately, so he will have to write a letter in Polish and send the fee via the bank. You will also need to nominate a representative in Poland to collect it. Feel free to reach out to our team at for more information.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  16. Dear Prof. Adamski,

    My grandfather fled Poland in July of 1939 and arrived in New York. When he arrived, he was about 34.

    I have his certificate of naturalization dated 1945 (though I’m not sure it’s just the petition or the granting of naturalization itself).

    From what I understand, those who were naturalized in a foreign country before 1951, automatically lost their Polish citizenship on the date of naturalization. That said, are there any exceptions, such as the fact that he was still at the age of army service in Poland, or any other exceptions?



  17. Dear Prof. Adamski, I am an athlete of Polish descent who would like to become a citizen of Poland. I have visited Poland many times, and I am in contact with cousins in Poland, but they are all through my mother’s grandmother’s family. My great-grandparents both left Poland between 1900-1914. My father is not Polish, only my mother has Polish ancestors. Should I try to document my bloodline through my grandfather’s father? Or,should I make an appeal directly to the office of the president? For instance, last year, I ran the Warsaw Marathon, and I was the 1st US female to finish. Would this help me? Thank you for your time and assistance, Anna

    1. Hello Anna,

      Thank you for your question.

      Confirmation of Polish citizenship through descent is a much quicker and easier route. But, a presidential grant is also an option as you are an accomplished athlete.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  18. Hello, I’m wondering whether I’m eligible for Hungarian citizenship.

    My grandfather was born in Budapest in 1938. In 1956 he immigrated to Sweden and naturalized as a Swedish citizen in 1968.
    As dual citizenship was not permitted at the time, he had to renounce his Hungarian citizenship.
    He married a Swedish citizen in 1970 and they birthed my mother in 1972. I was born in 1998.

    I have documents proving my grandfathers Hungarian nationality, naturalization as a Swedish citizen and renounciation as a Hungarian citizen.
    Is my mother and I eligible for Hungarian citizenship?

    Thanks in advance,

  19. Hello, I was wondering whether I might be eligible for Polish citizenship.

    My grandafther was born in Poland in 1902. In September 1920, when he was 18, he entered the US from Montreal on a Polish passport, which was apparently issued by the Polish consulate in Canada earlier in 1920. I have this passport in my possession, though it is torn into four pieces (it is after all just a piece of paper that is 100 years old!), though still entirely legible. I am not certain exactly when he first left Poland for Canada, or whether he spent any significant amount of time in Canada before entering the US. I am also not sure that matters?

    His Polish passport reflects that he was born in Mlawa, Poland

    He was naturalized as a US citizen in 1926, at age 24.

    At some point thereafter he married my grandmother, who was also born in Poland, though I dont know when she was born or when she left Poland for the US.

    My father was born in the US in 1938. His parents were married at the time (although I have not yet been able to locate a marriage certificate for them).

    My mother was not of Polish ancestry.

    I was born in the US in 1965.

    Neither my grandfather, my father nor I have ever served in the US military, or held public office in the US.

    Does it seem like I would be eligible? I was concerned that my grandfather became a naturalized US citizen in 1926, but he was only 24 at the time, and was only 36 when my father was born in the US, so perhaps the so-called “military paradox” might apply here and my grandfather remain ed a Polish citizen? I am also not sure whether I’d need to prove he didnt leave Poland until after the 1920 law went into effect (January 31, 1920).

    I’d be interested in your response, this whole area is quite fascinating.

    1. Hi Jordan,

      Yes, from the information you’ve provided, it does sound like you are eligible.

      You are correct as far as all the dates. In addition to the Polish passport (which is amazing to still have!), you’d need to prove he was a resident of Poland at some point (even if it’s before 1918) as a permanent resident, preferably as an adult, otherwise you’d have to go back to his father’s generation. Do you know what happened to him? Did he stay in Mlawa?

      Agreed! It is a very fascinating area to work in.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

      1. Thank you very much for your reply. I am not certain how I would go about proving he was a permanent resident of Poland, though to my knowledge he was born there and didn’t leave Poland until he was over 18 to travel to the US, via Canada, in 1920. Though I don’t have any additional documentation.

        I don’t have any documentation concerning his parents, either, or even know their names, but my understanding is that they never left Mlawa and were later killed in the holocaust. However I have no records about that, it is just what I remember hearing as a child.

  20. Dear Professor Adamski,

    My maternal grandfather was born in Wejherowo in 1904. During the German occupation, it was known as Neustadt, West Prussia. He was brought to the USA in 1911. He did not become a US citizen until 1940, two years after my mother was born and one year after Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany.

    On his petition for naturalization, it states that he had Polish nationality and was of the Polish race. This seems impossible since he left before 1920. We were told that he had difficulty proving his birth to US authorities. Could he have obtained a document from Polish authorities stating that he was Polish? Would it be absolutely necessary to find it?

    We also have his Catholic baptismal record and his birth record from the town register. We have nothing else other than his US marriage record.

    It also seems possible that he could have been a German citizen until 1940. However, the German authorities would probably not like that his naturalization record states that he is Polish. I already have German citizenship from my father. I suppose that it would be useful to know whether my mother is a German citizen since German authorities would then say that I have no “Migration Background”, I think.

    Kind regards,

    1. Hi Joe,

      It is quite possible, if your grandfather considered himself Polish rather than German. So whilst he may have lacked an official proof of this (particularly before 1918), he could well be ethnically Polish, just living in the West Prussian territory.

      It would be useful to have a document from Poland stating he was Polish, yes. Have you tried contacting the US archives and the Polish embassy (they may have his records, although very unlikely).

      Your case would be challenging and since he was a child when he left Poland, you’d have to go back to his parents (more specifically: his father) to prove they’ve held Polish citizenship in 1920 when the relevant act was enacted in Poland.

      I think that your mother’s citizenship would probably be classed as “unable to be determined” because of passage of time and lack of documents but it is up to the Polish government to confirm that with certainty.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  21. Mr. Adamski,

    I am in a similar situation with other who had Polish Great Grandparents move to the USA prior to 1918. They gave birth to my grandmother on US soil in 1922. My grandmother then had a daughter of her own (my mother) on US soil in 1948. My mother gave birth to myself on US soil in 1980.

    Is it true that citizenship can only be passed down through paternal line? That means I am disqualified from citizenship by descent due to a break in the line?

    I believe a law was passed that recognized both the mother or father as being able to pass on citizenship. However, that was two years after my mother was born. Am I completely out of luck?

    Can I appeal to the Polish President by grant? Have you heard of cases like mine where an grant was approved?

    Thank you!

    1. Hi Marshall,

      Thank you for your question,

      No, that is not true. Although in some cases it is a more simple process to reclaim Polish citizenship through one’s paternal ancestors, you can pursue your Polish citizenship through your maternal line too.

      In your case, we would need to know more about your grandmother’s marriage – whom did she marry and when? Was the marriage religious or registered via civil authorities? If she married a non-Polish citizen before January 19 1951, you unfortunately do not qualify.

      If you are not eligible for Polish citizenship through descent, you can absolutely apply for the Grant of Polish Citizenship. We have helped many people receive their Polish Citizenship through the grant, in cases just like yours.

      Please feel free to email my team at if you would like to speak about your case in more detail.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  22. Hi Professor Adamski,

    My parents left Poland in the 80s during the communist period. My mother left to Italy with permission from the gov as a student, and my father was permitted to join her because she was pregnant. They then left Italy to live in Germany and later immigrated to Canada where I was born in 1989. We have since returned to Poland to travel and visit and they now both have new Polish passports. Would their departure in the 80s disqualify me from Polish citizenship?

    1. Hi Christina,

      Your parents’ departure from Poland in the 80s definitely would not disqualify you from reclaiming your Polish citizenship. In fact, from the information you’ve provided, it sounds like you have a pretty straightforward case.

      If you would like to be sure of your eligibility, however, please take a few minutes to complete our eligibility assessment.

      Yours truly,

      Prof. Adamski

  23. My great grandmother left Czechoslovakia in 1921 and was pregnant with my grandmother , whom was born in the US a few months later. My great grandmother wasn’t a American citizen at the time. Is it possible I can get czech citizenship??